Who became kamikazee

                                                           By Kirill Bulatov
course: Cultural Diversit in the Modern World
instructor: Leigh Rich



This extended essay is about the Kamikaze pilots who made suicide
attacks from the
air during the Pacific War. This paper aims to find who the pilots
really were and how
they felt about their suicide mission. The hypothesis for the research
was that any pilot
could become a Kamikaze pilot, and that the pilots probably felt
scared, yet took the
responsibility to carry out their mission.
Most of the investigations were made through primary sources. Since
the Kamikaze
attacks were made from bases in Kyushu, there are several museums
there where
information may be found. There, the actual letters and diaries that
the pilots had left
behind are displayed. Also, fifteen interviews with survivors of the
attacks, relatives and
other people related to the attacks were made. Since the Kamikaze
attacks were made
only fifty years ago, a great quantity of documents was available.
The time period in concern is from early 1944 to 1945, and the topic
being the
Kamikaze pilots, and the region of research was within Japan, mainly
The conclusion of this extended essay was that the pilots were
ordinary, average young
men of the time who volunteered, and that most felt that their dying
in such a mission
would improve the war situation for the Japanese. However, exactly how
the pilots felt
could not be fully understood by a student researching the topic fifty
years after the
actual attack.

In blossom today, then scattered:
Life is so like a delicate flower.
How can one expect the fragrance
To last for ever?

--Admiral Onishi Takijiro


During World War II in the Pacific, there were pilots of the Japanese
Imperial Army
and Navy who made suicide attacks, driving their planes to
deliberately crash into
carriers and battle- ships of the Allied forces. These were the pilots
known as the
Kamikaze pilots. This essay focuses on how they felt about their
suicide mission.
Because right-wing organizations have used the Kamikaze pilots as a
symbol of a
militaristic and extremely nationalistic Japan, the current Japanese
respond to the issue
with ignorance and false stereotypes and with generally negative and
remarks. The aim of this essay is to reveal the often unknown truth
concerning the
pilots, and above all to give a clearer image as to who the pilots
really were.
The hypothesis behind the question, "Who were the Kamikaze pilots and
how did they
feel towards their suicide mission?" is that any pilot devoted to the
country, who
volunteered and was chosen felt scared, yet took the responsibility to
carry out his

Part One

The death of Emperor Taisho may be the point when Japan had started to
become the
fascist state that it was during the Pacific War. Although the
military had been active
ever since the Jiji period (1867-1912) in wars such as the Sino-
Japanese War
(1894-1895), and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), it became
extremely active
when Crown Prince Hirohito became Emperor Showa. Coup d'etats became
and several political figures were assassinated. By Emperor Showa's
reign, the military
had the real authority.[1]
According to those who have lived through the early Showa period (1926-
1945), the
presence of Emperor Showa was like that of a god and he was more of a
figure than a political one.[2] In many of the haiku that the Kamikaze
pilots wrote, the
Emperor is mentioned in the first line.
Systematic and organized education made such efficient "brainwashing"
possible. In
public schools, students were taught to die for the emperor. By late
1944, a slogan of
Jusshi Reisho meaning "Sacrifice life," was taught.[3]
Most of the pilots who volunteered for the suicide attacks were those
who were born
late in the Taisho period (1912-1926) or in the first two or three
years of Showa.
Therefore, they had gone through the brainwashing education, and were
products of
the militaristic Japan.
Censorship brought restrictions on the Japanese people. The letters,
diaries, and
photographs of individual soldiers were all censored. Nothing
revealing where they
were, or what they were doing concerning the military, could be
Major restrictions were placed on the press, radio and other media.
The public was not
to be informed of defeats or damage on the Japanese side. Only
victories and damage
imposed on the Allies were to be announced.[5]
Another factor that created the extreme atmosphere in Japan were the
"Kenpeitai," a
part of the Imperial Army which checked on the civilians to see if
they were saying or
doing anything against the Emperor or the military.[6]
Since the time of feudalism, especially during the Tokugawa period, a
warrior must
follow the Bushido. This Code, and a culture which viewed suicide and
the death of
young people as beautiful were factors contributing to the mass

Part Two

Although it was only from 1944 that the General Staff had considered
organized suicide attacks,[8] "suicide attacks" had been made since
the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor.[9] Two types of suicide attacks had been made.
The first was
an organized attack which would, in 90% of the cases, result in the
death of the
soldiers. However, if the plan had worked on the battlefield as it did
in theory, there
was some possibility that the soldiers would survive.[10] The other
type of suicide
attack that had been made was completely voluntary, and the result of
a sudden
decision. This was usually done by aircraft. The pilots, finding no
efficient way to fight
the American aircraft, deliberately crashed into them, and caused an
destroying the American aircraft as well as killing themselves.[11]
Because these voluntary suicide attacks had shown that the young
pilots had the spirit
of dying rather than being defeated, by February, 1944, the staff
officers had started to
believe that although they were way below the Americans in the number
of aircraft,
battleships, skillful pilots and soldiers, and in the amount of
natural resources (oil, for
example), they were above the Americans in the number of young men who
would fight
to the death rather than be defeated. By organizing the "Tokkotai,"
they thought it
would also attack the Americans psychologically, and make them lose
their will to
continue the war.[12] The person who suggested the Kamikaze attack at
first is
unknown, but it is often thought to be Admiral Takijiro Onishi.
However, Onishi was in
the position to command the first Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai rather
than suggest
In October, 1944, the plans for the organized suicide attacks became
reality. Having
received permission from the Minister of the Navy, Admiral Onishi
entered Clark Air
Base prepared to command the first organized suicide attacks.[14]
Onishi had not
thought the organized suicide attacks to be an efficient tactic, but
that they would be a
powerful battle tactic, and he believed that it would be the best and
most beautiful
place for the pilots to die. Onishi once said, "if they (the young
pilots) are on land, they
would be bombed down, and if they are in the air, they would be shot
down. That's
sad...Too sad...To let the young men die beautifully, that's what
Tokko is. To give
beautiful death, that's called sympathy."[15]
This statement makes sense, considering the relative skills of the
pilots of the time. By
1944, air raids were made all over Japan, especially in the cities.
Most of the best
pilots of the Navy and the Army had been lost in previous battles.
Training time was
greatly reduced to the minimum, or even less than was necessary in
order to train a
pilot. By the time the organized suicide attacks had started, the
pilots only had the
ability to fly, not to fight. Although what happens to the pilot
himself in doing the suicide
attack is by no means anywhere near beauty, to die in such a way, for
the Emperor,
and for the country, was (at the time), honorable.
One thing that was decided upon by the General Staff was that the
Kamikaze attacks
were to be made only if it was in the will of the pilot himself. It
was too much of a task
to be "commanded."[16]
The first organized suicide attack was made on October 21, 1944 by a
called the Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai.[17] Tokubetsu Kogekitai was the
generally used in the Japanese Imperial Navy and Army. The public had
known them
as the Tokkotai, the abbreviated form. Tokkotai referred to all the
organized suicide
attacks. Shinpu is what is better known as Kamikaze.[18] The captain
of the first
attack was to be Captain Yukio Seki.[19]
How was Captain Seki talked into such a task? According to the
subcommander of the
First Air Fleet, Tamai, who brought the issue up to Captain Seki, the
Captain had in a
short time replied "I understand. Please let me do it."[20] According
to another source,
the reply that Captain Seki gave was, "Please let me think about it
one night. I will
accept the offer tomorrow morning."[21]
The document which seems to have the most credibility is the book, The
Divine Wind
by Captain Rikihei Inoguchi and Commander Tadashi Nakajima. According
to this
account a graduate of the Naval Academy, Naoshi Kanno, was originally
nominated as
the leader of this mission. However, he was away from Mabalacat on a
mission to
mainland Japan. Therefore, to take Kanno's place Captain Seki was
chosen, and was
called to Commander Tamai's room at midnight. After hearing of the
mission, it
appears, Seki remained silent for a while, then replied, "You must let
me do it."[22]
The reason this is the most credible document is because it had been
written by
Captain Rikihei Inoguchi, who was actually there with Tamai and Seki,
and named the
first unit, Shinpu. It is doubtful that there was a flaw in his memory
since the book was
published in 1959, only 14 years after the war.
In any case, Captain Seki agreed to lead the first Kamikaze attack,
and, on October
25, 1944 during the battle off Samos, made one of the first attacks,
on the American
aircraft carrier Saint Lo.[23] Twenty-six fighter planes were
prepared, of which half
were to escort and the other half to make the suicide mission. That
half was divided
into the Shikishima, Yamato, Asahi and Yamazakura.[24]

Part Three

The youngest of the Kamikaze pilots of the Imperial Army was 17 years
old,[25] and
the oldest, 35.[26] Most of them were in their late teens, or early
twenties. As the
battle in Okinawa [April to June 1945] worsened, the average age of
the pilots got
younger. Some had only completed the equivalent of an elementary
school and middle
school combined. Some had been to college. There was a tendency for
them not to be
first sons. The eldest sons usually took over the family business.
Most were therefore
the younger sons who did not need to worry about the family business.
Most of those who had come from college came in what is called the
Shutsujin. This was when the college students' exemption from being
drafted into the
military was lifted, and the graduation of the seniors was shifted
from April 1944 to
September 1943.[27]
Many of these students were from prestigious colleges such as Tokyo,
Kyoto, Keio,
and Waseda Universities. These students from college tended to have
more liberal
ideas, not having been educated in military schools, and also were
more aware of the
world outside of Japan.
Where were the pilots trained? All the pilots involved in the "Okinawa
Tokko" had
been trained in/as one of the following: The Youth Pilot Training
School, Candidates for
Second Lieutenant, The Imperial Army Air Corps Academy, Pilot Trainee,
Officer Candidates, Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet, Pilot
Training Schools,
or Special Flight Officer Candidate.[28]

Part Four

Since the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if the pilots had
volunteered, and
could not be "commanded," there were two methods to collect
volunteers. One was for
all pilots in general, and another was for the Special Flight Officer
Probationary Cadet
(College graduates) only. The former was an application form, and the
latter was a
survey. The survey asked: "Do you desire earnestly/wish/do not wish/to
be involved in
the Kamikaze attacks?" They had to circle one of the three choices, or
leave the paper
blank. The important fact is that the pilots were required to sign
their names.[29] When
the military had the absolute power, and the whole atmosphere of Japan
expected men
to die for the country, there was great psychological pressure to
circle "earnestly
desire" or "wish." The Army selected those who had circled "earnestly
desire." The
reason that the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet had to
answer such a survey
rather than send the applications at their own will was probably
because the military
had known that the students who had come from college had a wider
vision, and would
not easily apply for such a mission. For the regular application, the
Army was confident
that there would be many young pilots who would apply. They were
correct. Every
student of the 15th term of the Youth Pilot Training School had
applied. Because there
were so many volunteers, the military had decided to let the ones with
better grades go
There are several factors which made so many young pilots volunteer
for such a
mission. Extreme patriotism must have been one factor for sure. Added
to that, there
was the reverence for the Emperor, a god. Some say that it was
generally believed that
if one died for the emperor, and was praised in Yasukuni Shrine, they
would become
happy forever.[31]
The effect of the brainwashing that the military had done to the
students is surprising.
The pilots felt it was "obvious" that they were to take part in the
Kamikaze attacks.
Most pilots mention in letters that they were happy, and proud of
being given such an
honorable mission. It is true also that they believed that if they
took part in the mission,
it might improve the war situation for Japan.[32]
What the military education was like was described in a diary kept by
Corporal Yukio
Araki, from the time he had entered the Youth Pilot Training School,
until the night
before his original date of departure for Okinawa.
Since anything written was checked by one of the military staff,
nothing that would
upset the military or contradict the ideas of the Japanese government
could be written.
However, more importantly, because of the lack of privacy, personal
emotions could
not be written. Therefore, in Corporal Araki's diary, very rarely can
anything "personal"
be found. The first several days in the Training school, he simply
lists the subjects that
were studied that day, and what was done for physical training. Later
on he mentions
what was done for training, the events that took place, and other
things he had done.
However, most of what he wrote was about the "warning" he
received.[33] The
following are some of the "warnings" he had received:
There is an attitude problem when listening to the officers.[34]
Some students seem to smile or laugh during training, and others
are being
lazy...In general there seems to be a lack of spirit.[35]
Straighten yourself. It reveals your spirit.[36]
The education emphasized the mind, spirit and attitude. Neatness and
cleanliness were
also frequently mentioned. Usually, a hard slap in the face
accompanied these warnings.
The way the 15-year- old boy responded to the warning was: "I must try
One of the listed subjects in the diary was a course called "Spiritual
Moral Lecture,"
nearly every other day. What exactly was taught in the course is not
However it seemed that in some of these courses, great military
figures who died for
Japan were mentioned.[38] It is a certainty that this course was one
factor in making
the pilots feel "happy and proud" to be involved in the Kamikaze
The military education was quickly absorbed by these young pilots-to-
be. It was in
October 1943 that the young boy had entered the Training School. By
the next
February, he had written a short poem saying that a Japanese man
should be praised
when he dies as he should for the Emperor.[39]
The amount of time students spent in the Youth Pilot Training School
was reduced from
three years to less than two years for the 15th term students.
Therefore, the schedule
was tight and tough.[40] There was almost no holiday at all, and many
of the planned
holidays were canceled.[41] What Corporal Araki called a "holiday" was
very much
different from what is normally considered a holiday. An example of
his holiday started
with some sort of ceremony, followed by listening and learning new
songs (probably of
war), and watching a movie. Something related to the military was
taught even on days
called "holidays."[42] Therefore, they were given no time to "think."
There was
something to do almost every minute that they were awake, and they
were taught what
the right spirit was. By not giving them time to think, they had no
time to evaluate what
they were being taught. They just absorbed it, and as a result, by the
time they
graduated, they were brainwashed.
Corporal Araki had an older brother and three younger brothers. In his
will to his
parents, he mentioned that he wished two of his younger brothers to
also enter the
military; one should enter the Navy and become an officer, the other
to enter the Army
and also become an officer. He also mentions that he wishes that his
brothers follow his
path (and be involved in the Kamikaze attacks).[43]
Mr. S. Araki, Corporal Araki's older brother, mentioned that his
brother had greatly
changed after entering the military school. He remembers that his
brother's attitude
towards him was not casual, and it was not like he was talking to a
brother. He felt that
he had really grown up since he had seen him last, both physically and
There are three references in which Corporal Araki's thoughts towards
the mission may
be found: his will, last letters, and his diary. In his will to his
parents, and to his brother,
he mentions that he has no nostalgic sentiments. In his will addressed
to his brother, he
mentions that he would like him to consider the mission as piety. In a
postcard sent on
the day of his mission, he calls the mission, "an honorable mission,"
and that he is
looking forward to see them again at Yasukuni Shrine.[45] It was in
the end of March
1945, that Corporal Araki's unit's mission was ordered to take
place.[46] From just
before then, Corporal Araki had not written in his diary. After an
entry on March 16,
there were no entries for two months. He wrote, because he was busy,
there was no
time to write.[47] Could that be true? Indeed, his squadron was on a
tight schedule for
March. From the 25th, they returned from P'yongyang to Gifu
However, Sergeant Kazuo Arai had been able to keep a diary at the
time.[49] It may
be because of strong personal emotions he just could not keep the
diary. Or, it may be
that he could care no longer about keeping a diary. In either case the
fact that he had
not written an entry on the day that the mission was officially
ordered, when he had
written every other special event down, reveals that he was no longer
in the state of
mind that he had been.
The planned date of the mission of the 72nd Shinbu squadron (which was
the squadron
to which Corporal Araki belonged) was initially, May 21, 1945.
However, because of
rainy weather, it was postponed to May 27, 1945. In his last diary
entry on May 20,
1945, he wrote:[50]

...at ** o'clock I received the thankful command to depart
tomorrow. I
am deeply emotional, and just hope to sink one (American
Already, hundreds of visitors had visited us. Cheerfully singing
the last
season of farewell.[51]

and is cut off there. His handwriting however was very stable, and was
not as if he was
losing control. If for some reason he had to leave the diary for a
while, why did he not
go back to it? Was it that he had become extremely emotional that he
could no longer
write? In any case, he never returned to his diary.

Part Five

In reading the last letters of the Kamikaze pilots, there are
generally two types. One,
the "Typical" letters and the other, the "Unique" letters. Most of the
typical letters were
written by graduates of military schools such as the Youth Pilot
Training School. The
"Unique" ones were written by the Special Flight Officer Probationary
graduates from college. The first two of the following five pilots
have written a typical
letter, and the other three have written unique letters.
Corporal Masato Hisanaga of the 72nd Shinbu Squadron was twenty years
old. In his
letter, he thanked his parents for the years that he was alive, and
reported to them how
he had been doing, and informed them of the kindness of the people
where he had
been. After asking his parents to say "Hi" to various people, he says
that he will take
revenge for his older brother (who, as it appears, must have been
killed in the war) by
sinking the enemy's battleship and killing its soldiers. He too asks
that his younger
brothers follow their brother (himself). "All of the (Japanese)
population is the
tokkotai." He too mentioned, "I have no nostalgic sentiments."[52]
Corporal Shinji Ozeki, 19 years old wrote a will to his mother

As a man I will courageously go. Now, I have no special nostalgic
sentiments. However, I will go regretting that although being
born a man, I
have not had filial piety.
To give this young self for the protection of the imperial
nation, I believe is
I hope that you will forgive my sin of being undutiful and that
you will live
in happiness.[54]

This is similar to what Corporal Araki and Hisanaga had mentioned. All
reveal their
thoughts towards their parents. They believed their dying was piety,
which shows that
they were doing it for their family. All had mentioned having no
nostalgic sentiments
possibly to make their parents feel easier. Because these are
"Typical" letters, many
others had written just as they had.
The unique ones written by the college graduates included more
personal feelings. For
example, Second Lieutenant Shigeyuki Suzuki wrote:[55]

People say that our feeling is of resignation, but that does not
know at all
how we feel, and think of us as a fish about to be cooked.
Young blood does flow in us.
There are persons we love, we think of, and many unforgettable
memories. However, with those, we cannot win the war.
To let this beautiful Japan keep growing, to be released from the
hands of the Americans and British, and to build a 'freed Asia'
was our
goal from the Gakuto Shutsujin year before last; yet nothing has
The great day that we can directly be in contact with the battle
is our day
of happiness and at the same time, the memorial of our

Second Lieutenant Ryoji Uehara, a graduate of Keio University was 22
years old. His
ideas were "radical" for the time, and if known by the Kenpeitai, he
would not have
been left alone.[57] In a note, he wrote to a journalist just before
his mission that he
was greatly honored to be chosen as a Kamikaze pilot.[58 ]Yet he also
wrote, thinking
logically with the skills he had gained in college. He believed in
democracy. He believed
that the victory of democracy was obvious, and although fascism would
make the
country appear to be prosperous temporarily, only decline would wait
for it. He
mentioned the fact that Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany had been
defeated, and that the
power of "Freedom" will appear in history. He says that if his ideas
were correct, it
would be a tragedy for the nation but that he would be happy. In the
end of the note he
Tomorrow, one believer in democracy will leave this world. He may
lonely, but his heart is filled with satisfaction.
Second Lieutenant Uehara believed that he would not go to Yasukuni
Shrine, but go to
heaven where he would be able to meet his brother and the girl he
loved, who died
Second Lieutenant Toshio Anazawa was engaged. Yet being chosen for
such a mission
that [engagement] was to be canceled. He wrote in his last letter to
her all the
thankfulness he felt for her and her family. He tells her that he does
not want her to
reflect on the time they had spent together.[60] He wrote:
As an engaged man, as a man to go, I would like to say a little
to you, a
lady before I go.
I only wish your happiness.
Do not mind the past. You are not to live in the past.
Have the courage and forget the past. You are to create a new
You are to live from moment to moment in the reality. Anazawa no
exists in the reality.[61]
Unlike the first two letters, which contained the words, "I have no
nostalgic emotions,"
he wrote: "It's too late now, but I would like to say some of my
He then listed the books he wanted to read, what he wanted to see,
what he wanted to
listen to, and that he was eager to see her, and to talk to her.[62]
The last three writings probably spoke for themselves and require no
explanation. They just made clearer the different ways of thought the
college students
had from the others who attended military school.
Not only in writing had the thoughts of the pilots appeared. In
actions, and in speeches
too were the emotions visible. Corporal Mineyoshi Takahashi, according
to Mr. Yasuo
Takahashi, his older brother, had changed since entering military
school, and his
attitude in talking with Mr. Takahashi was not as it used to be.[63]
(The way Mr. Y.
Takahashi explained the differences before and after Mineyoshi joined
the military was
similar to the way Mr. S. Araki had explained Yukio's changes.) He
remembers that
the last time they met, he took Corporal Takahashi into the ship he
was working in.
Suddenly, Corporal Takahashi had asked his brother: "Which part of the
ship is the
weakest?" Mr. Takahashi remembers that he was extremely surprised, but
pointed to
the place which he knew was the weakest.[64]
This reveals that Corporal Takahashi was thinking of his mission
rather calmly. He had
asked the question, probably thinking of which part of the ship he
should drive his plane
Corporal Takamasa Senda before his departure had been singing many
songs with
children, and at times, sat quietly alone, burning old letters in an
expression of deep
thought. The last night, he looked up at the stars and said, "You are
lucky, this will be
the last time I see the stars...I wonder how my mother is
doing...."[66] His singing with
the children was probably to forget the coming mission, and his
burning the letters was
to forget the past. Saying that he wanted to be able to see the stars
again is an
indication that he wanted to live.
Whether patriotism was the answer to the way they felt can be doubted
in the case of
Second Lieutenant Fumihiro Mitsuyama. His real name was Tak Kyong-
He was Korean, but like other Japanese men, he too was sent to war,
and was chosen
as a Kamikaze pilot. The last evening before his mission, he went to
the cafeteria
appointed by the Army, which was run by a lady, Mrs. Tome Torihama,
who was
called "Okasan" (mother) by the young Kamikaze pilots of Chiran Air
Base. He went
up to her and said, "I will sing you a song of my country," and sang
Ariran. By the
second verse he was in tears.[68] Because he was a graduate of
college, he had not
volunteered willingly but was probably pressured to circle "desire
earnestly" in the
survey, especially being a Korean.
According to survivors, all say that they felt quite calm, and normal.
They were not
scared of death but were happy that the day had finally come.[69] Mr.
Itatsu was a
pilot who had departed for the mission but because his engine had
stopped on the way,
his plane fell into the sea, and he survived.[70] He says that he
remembers being happy
when he was chosen for the mission.[71] He said that the young people
then who had
gone into military schools did not have the ability to think
logically, and therefore sent
applications without much thought. He also says that these pilots were
really innocent,
and thought purely that they would be able to serve, and protect the
country.[72] An
author and a critic, Tadao Morimoto said in a T.V. program that he
believes that it was
not true that they were happy to die for the country.[73] Mr. Itatsu
says that he
disagrees with him because some young and innocent pilots died
believing they could
become happy dying that way.[74] Since Mr. Itatsu was one of the
Kamikaze pilots
himself, his comments should be given more credibility than the
comments made by
Tadao Morimoto who had been an officer in the Navy during the war, but
was not
involved with the Kamikaze attacks himself.
Kiichi Matsuura, the author of the book Showa wa Toku (Showa Far Away)
that he recalls the first planned date of the mission was like every
other day, and no
special conversation took place. When he found that his aircraft would
not function
properly, he suddenly felt the strong urge to live. His aircraft not
functioning implied that
he would not die. Realizing that, he could only think of living. On
his second "chance"
his plane was fine halfway. He was with two other pilots, and seeing
one of them sink
into the sea, realized a problem in all their engines. The two
returned. He recalls that
until the moment they decided to return, he was not at all scared,
because they were
flying toward death. However, returning was frightening. He had to
protect his life from
Finally, in an interview with a member of the Self Defense Force, Mr.
Matsunaga, a
word which held the key to a better understanding was mentioned. The
word was
"decision." To the question, "If something happened, would you not be
afraid?" he
answered that it was his decision to enter such a world, and that he
would not escape if
anything did occur.[76] Similarly, although it was with far more
psychological pressure,
all the Kamikaze pilots had made the decision.


The pilots were, as a matter of fact, not radical nor extremely
patriotic, but were the
average Japanese of the time. It was a dream for the young boys of
late Taisho period
and early Showa to serve in the military, especially in the Air Force,
as a career. Not all
pilots who wanted to become Kamikaze pilots could become one. Although
this may
sound strange, there were so many volunteers to make the suicidal and
fatal attacks,
that the military, to be fair, had to let the ones with the better
grades go earlier. Because
of the aura that had covered Japan, the young pilots of 18 and 19 were
eager to go.
Those of the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets who had their
own thoughts
like Second lieutenants Suzuki, Uehara, and Anazawa were able to
separate their
personal life from what was required of them to do for the war. They
felt the
responsibility to go.
How exactly the pilots felt about the attacks could not be known but
it seems that they
were, in general, happy that they could serve the country, but had
other thoughts
towards death. Because the brainwashing done on the pilots trained in
military schools
was so effective, it changed the priority of 'life, then country,' the
other way around.
Life was made, by the atmosphere and education of the time, to be not
the first priority,
but something that must be given up for the first priority, the
Emperor and the country.
If they believed that ever-lasting happiness would follow their
mission, there was
nothing for them to fear. Those who were not brainwashed (the college
graduates) may
have felt fear. If they were able to detach themselves totally from
life, they might have
felt better. Yet is detaching oneself from life really possible?
In any case, it seems that they were all optimistic. They volunteered,
believing their
death might save their family, the ones they loved, and Japan.
However, as a student
investigating fifty years after the events, it was not possible for me
to understand exactly
how the pilots had felt towards their mission.

Appendix One

The Different Pilots' Training Schools in The Imperial Army Where the
Kamikaze Pilots
Were Trained

The Youth Pilot Training School
The students who had graduated from the Youth Pilot Training
schools had the
best flying skills of the Imperial Army. This schooling system
had begun in 1933,
and lasted until the end of the Pacific War. The age range that
was accepted into
this school was between 14 and 17. Originally, the time spent in
the school was
three years. One year of general education in Tokyo and two years
specialized education in various parts of Japan. However, by the
end of the war,
the students of the 15th term were trained in only a year and 8
months and were
made into soldiers just in time for the Okinawa Tokko.
Candidates for Second Lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers whose excellence was recognized were
educated in
the Air Corps Academy. Because of their experience and career,
their skill was
of a high level.
Imperial Army Air Corps Academy
Students who had completed the four-year course of Middle School
or the
Higher Elementary School took an examination to enter. They
became civil
servants who had decided to work in the Army. Graduates of the
56th and 57th
term were involved in the Okinawa Tokko.
Pilot Trainee
The pilot trainees had to have a pilot's license, and had to be
an Officer
Candidate. After one month in a squadron, they received six
months of flight
training in the Imperial Army Air Corps Academy of Kumagaya, and
after six
months as probationary Officer, became Second Lieutenants. Among
students of the Ninth term, there were graduates of the Higher
Pilot training
Flight Officer Candidates
Officer candidates consisted of drafted men with at least Middle
education. After four months of preliminary education, a test was
taken. If they
passed the test, they received the required education for
officers, and if found fit
for the position were ranked as Higher Officer Candidates. After
serving as
probationary officers, they were ranked as Second Lieutenants. If
they were not
found fit as an officer, they became the Lower Officer Candidates
and became
non-commissioned officers. Those who had the interest in flying
received training
with the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet in the
Imperial Air Corps
Academy. The students of the 7th, 8th, and 9th term were involved
in the
Okinawa Tokko.
Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets
This was for the college students drafted into the war by the
Gakuto Shutsujin
who were interested in the Air Corps. The 1st term entered in
October 1943,
the 2nd in December 1943, and the 3rd in June 1944. They were
made into
Second Lieutenants in one year, half a year earlier than planned.
One sixth of the
entire Okinawa Tokko of the Army was made up of these 312 cadets.
Pilot Training Schools
This was not an institution belonging to the Army, but belonged
to the Ministry of
Communications. However, the content was almost the same. There
twelve of these schools and the students were separated into the
regular course
and flight training course. Students of fourteen to fifteen years
old entered the
regular course. After three years of regular education, the
students received one
year of flight training which the students of the flight training
course had
completed. To enter the flight training school from the
beginning, an educational
background of more than Middle School graduation was required.
108 of the
graduates died in the Okinawa Tokko.

Appendix Two

The 72nd Shinbu Squadron
Many of the Kamikaze pilots mentioned in the Essay were pilots of the
72nd Shinbu-tai
of the Imperial Army. The following are pilots of the squadron:

Title Name Age at Departure
First Lieutenant Mutsuo Sato 24
Sergeant Nobuyoshi Nishikawa
Sergeant Kazuo Arai 21
Corporal Yukio Araki 17
Corporal Tsutomu Hayakawa 19
Corporal Kairyu Kanamoto
Corporal Atsunobu Sasaki
Corporal Kaname Takahashi 18
Corporal Mineyoshi Takahashi 17
Corporal Masato Hisanaga 20
Corporal Toshio Chizaki 19
Corporal Takamasa Senda 19

This squadron was formed on January 30, 1945 as the 113 Educational
Flight Corps,
then was transformed to the 23rd Rensei Flight Corps. On March 30,
1945, the same
unit was renamed the 72nd Shinbu Squadron. (Shinbu refers to the
squadrons of the
Imperial Army which made the suicide attacks by aircraft.) They were
stationed in
Heijo, what is now P'yongyan of North Korea. From March 25, 1944, they
were in
Kagamihara, Gifu prefecture for about one month. Before the mission in
May, the unit
returned to Kyushu, and stayed in Metabaru, for a few days, and flew
over to Bansei
Air Base. Their attack was first planned to be made on May 20, 1945,
however it was
postponed to May 27, 1945 due to rainy weather.
Of the twelve pilots, three did not depart for the suicide attack.
Corporal Atsunobu
Sasaki was killed by an American P-51 on May 2, 1945 in China. On the
same day,
Sergeant Nobuyoshi Nishikawa was injured, and could not take part in
the mission.
The aircraft of Kairyu Kanamoto malfunctioned on the day of their
mission, and could
not take off. The remaining nine made their mission from Bansei Air
Base at 6:00 a.m.,
May 27, 1945.

Appendix Three

The Research Method

The first time I learned of this topic was in August, 1992. It was
the time when I went
with my parents to Japan and visited manmuseums and talked to many
people whose
age varied from12 to 60 and they have told me many stories about war.
There, a great number of primary sources and photographs were
displayed, which
made me even more interested in the topic.
Since the summer of 1992, the collection of information started, with
no academic
purpose. In 1993, the book Rikugun Saigo no Tokko Kichi by Shichiro
was published. This book was about the Kamikaze pilots who departed
from Bansei
Air Base.
That summer of 1993 was crucial to my interest in the Kamikaze pilots.
First, I visited
Chiran Tokko Heiwa Kaikan again on August 21, and looked in more
detail at the
letters, diaries and photographs of the pilots. The photographs were
extremely inspiring
in a sense, since in none of them were the pilots showing an
expression of fatigue, or
regret. Most of them were smiling.
On the same night, I decided to spend the evening at "Tomiya Ryokan"
which is what
used to be the small restaurant Ms. Tome Torihama ran during the war,
and which the
Kamikaze pilots used frequently. There were several photographs of the
pilots remaining there. Mr. Yoshikiyo Torihama, the grandson of Ms.
Tome Torihama,
talked to me about many episodes concerning the last evening the
pilots visited the
Since May 1993 I thought it would be a wonderful opportunity to
organize my thoughts
and information on this topic.
This essay was extremely interesting and, above all, meaningful for me.
members of the older generation who I interviewed encouraged and
supported me

Appendix Four

The following are those who have supported and encouraged my research
for the
Extended Essay: (in alphabetical order)
Mr. Seiichi Araki
Mr. Tadamasa Itatsu
Ms. Itsuko Kai
Mrs. Masako Kai
Mr. Kyoichi Kamei
Mrs. Fusako Manabe
Mr. Ryo Matsunaga
Mr. Shiniro Nagao
Mr. Tadashi Nakajima
Mr. Glenn Scoggins
Mr. Tohshio Senda
Mr. Yasuo Takahashi
Mr. Yoshikiyo Torihama
Mr. Akira Yamami

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