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Amino-acizii sunt combinatii organice care contin in molecula una sau mai multe grupe amino si una sau mai multe grupe carboxil. Dupa structura, amino-acizii se impart in doua mari categorii:
1. Alifatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de o catena alifatica, chiar daca in molecula exista un nucleu aromatic.
2. Aromatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de un ciclu aromatic.
Dupa asezarea relativa a grupelor functionale se deosebesc α-amino-acizi, β-amino-acizi, γ-amino-acizi, etc. Dintre amino-acizii alifatici, cei mai importanti sunt α-amino-acizi, adica acei amino-acizi care contin grupele functionale legate de acelasi atom de carbon. Se deosebesc mai multe categorii mari de α-amino-acizi alifatici:
1. monocarboxilici
2. dicarboxilici
3. hidroxi-amino-acizi
4. tioamino-acizi
5. diamino-acizi
6. amino-acizi heterociclici

Denumirea
Prescurtarea
Formula

Amino-acizi monocarboxilici

Leucina
(acidul α-aminoizocapronic)
Leu CH3—CH—CH2—CH—COOH
| |
CH3 NH2
Izoleucina
(acidul α-amino-β-metilvalerianic)

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Ileu CH3—CH2—CH — CH—COOH
| |
CH3 NH2

Fenilalanina
(acidul α-amino-β-fenil-propionic)

Fe
—CH2—CH—COOH
|
NH2

Glicocolul(glicina)
(acidul aminoacetic)

Gli CH2— COOH
|
NH2

Alanina
(acidul α-aminopropionic)
Ala CH3—CH—COOH
|
NH2

Valina
(acidul α-aminoizovalerianic)
Val CH3—CH — CH—COOH
| |
CH3 NH2

Amino-acizi dicarboxilici

Acidul asparagic
(acidul aminosuccinic)
Asp HOOC—CH2—CH—COOH
|
NH2
Acidul glutamic
(acidul α-aminoglutaric)
Glu HOOC—CH2— CH2—CH—COOH
|
NH2

Hidroxi-amino-acizi

Treonina
(acidul α-amino-β-hidroxibutiric)
Tr CH3—CH — CH—COOH
| |
OH NH2

Tirosina
(acidul α-amino-β-hidroxifenil-propionic)
Ti
HO —CH2—CH—COOH
|
NH2
Serina
(acidul α-amino-β-hidroxipropionic)
Ser CH2 — CH—COOH
| |
OH NH2

Tio-amino-acizi

Cistina
(acidul di[α-amino-β-tiopropionic] ) Ci—S
Ci—S HOOC—CH—CH2—S—S– CH2—CH—COOH
| |
NH2 NH2

Metionina
(acidul α-amino-γ-metiltiobutiric)
Met CH2— CH2—CH—COOH
| |
S — CH3 NH2

Cisteina
(acidul α-amino-β-tiopropionic)
Cis CH2 — CH—COOH
| |
SH NH2

Diamino-acizi

Ornitina
(acidul α, δ-diaminovalerianic)
Or CH2— CH2—CH2—CH—COOH
| |
NH2 NH2
Lisina
(acidul α, ε-diaminocapronic)
Lis CH2— CH2—CH2—CH2—CH—COOH
| |
NH2 NH2

Amino-acizi heterociclici

Prolina
(acidul pirolidin-α-carboxilic)

Pro H2C— CH2
| |
H2C CH—COOH
/
NH

Hidroxiprolina
(acidul β-hidroxipirolidin-α-carboxilic)

Hipro HO—HC — CH2
| |
H2C CH—COOH
/
NH

Histidina
(acidul α-amino-β-imidazolil-(4)-propionic)
(imidazolil-(4)-alanina)

His N — C — CH2— CH—COOH
|| || |
HC CH NH2
/
NH

Triptofanul
(acidul α-amino-β-indolil-(3)-propionic)
(indolil-(3)-alanina)

Tri
— CH2— CH—COOH
|
NH2

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